Sample work: Factors Influencing Sports Broadcasting Consumption on TV and OTT Platforms

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This chapter outlines the research methodology adopted for the study, including the rationale for the chosen research design, data collection methods, and the sampling strategy.

3.1 Study Design

The methodology employed in the present study was a qualitative research design. The focus of the investigation was to assess and compare the diverse factors that influence consumer engagement with sports broadcasting across television and Over-The-Top (OTT) platforms. 

3.2 Sample size

For the primary data collection in the present study, a total of 20 participants with an age range of 18-60 years were selected to participate in both in-depth interviews and the observational approach. The decision to use a sample size of 20 was driven by the need to achieve a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of consumer behaviours and preferences in sports broadcasting. This sample size was deemed sufficient to provide diverse insights while ensuring manageability in data collection and analysis.

3.3 Sampling Technique

A purposive sampling strategy was employed to select these participants. This method involved intentionally choosing individuals from a pool of sports enthusiasts, who were identified through various channels, to represent a wide array of consumption behaviours, age groups, and geographic locations. The use of purposive sampling was instrumental in ensuring that the sample captured a broad spectrum of experiences and perspectives, which is crucial for an in-depth exploration of the factors influencing sports consumption.

3.4 Ethical Consideration

Ethical considerations were considered throughout the study. Participants were fully informed about the research objectives with their voluntary participation emphasized. Measures, including anonymization and secure data storage, were implemented to ensure participant confidentiality and privacy. 

3.5 Validity and Reliability

The study meticulously addressed the imperative aspects of validity and reliability. Steps were taken to ensure the trustworthiness of findings through techniques like member checking and triangulation. Member checking involved providing participants with the opportunity to review and confirm the accuracy of their contributions, enhancing the credibility of the study. Additionally, triangulation was employed, combining multiple data sources and methods to validate and corroborate findings, reinforcing the reliability of the research outcomes. These measures were integral to establishing the robustness and credibility of the study’s results.

3.6  Data Collection Tool

The data collection tool employed in the study was a detailed questionnaire, designed to gather insights on various aspects of sports broadcasting consumption. It consisted of 12 open-ended questions on key themes such as content quality and variety, cost and accessibility, social and community engagement, technology and device preferences, and a comparative analysis of TV versus OTT platforms. This approach facilitated a comprehensive understanding of consumer preferences and experiences in sports broadcasting, ensuring a rich and multifaceted data collection process. In addition to primary data collection through interviews, the study also involved the analysis of secondary data, which included reviewing existing literature, research papers, and industry reports to enrich the understanding of sports broadcasting consumption trends and patterns.

3.7 Data Collection Methods

3.7.1 In-Depth Interviews

The research employed a qualitative approach, utilizing semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect primary data. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of respondents who expressed diverse consumption behaviours and preferences. 12 Open-ended questions were used to encourage participants to express their thoughts, experiences, and motivations.  All interviews were conducted individually in person. Each interview lasted between 30 to 45 minutes and was recorded and transcribed with the participants’ consent. Transcription was crucial for identifying emerging themes and ideas. The data was collected using Microsoft Excel.

A short questionnaire was designed to ascertain the participants’ profiles. Interview questions followed the same major themes but were tailored for different professions to ensure relevance. The questions focused on:

  • Participants’ usage and consumption habits on OTT platforms and TV
  • Factors influencing their subscription decisions
  • The perceived value of OTT platforms compared to traditional TV
  • Individual or Shared viewing experiences
  • How advertisements influenced their viewing or subscription decisions

Table 1: Questionnaire form for an in-person interview

Questions / Participants

Participant 1

Participant 2

Participant 3

Participant ID








Q1: How often do you use OTT platforms and TV for watching content? Can you describe your typical usage pattern in a week?


Q2: What type of content (genres, shows, movies, documentaries, etc.) do you primarily watch on OTT platforms and TV?


Q3: In your experience, how does watching content on OTT platforms differ from traditional TV? What aspects stand out the most for you?


Q4: What factors do you consider when deciding to subscribe to an OTT platform or a TV service? Are there specific features or content that influence your decision?


Q5: How do you perceive the value of OTT platforms compared to traditional TV? Do you find one more beneficial or enjoyable than the other? Please elaborate.


Q6: Do you usually watch content alone, or do you have shared viewing experiences with family or friends? How does this affect your viewing choices?


Q7: How do advertisements influence your viewing experience on both OTT platforms and traditional TV? Do they affect your subscription decisions in any way?


Q8: How easy or difficult do you find it to access and navigate OTT platforms compared to traditional TV? Please share any specific experiences.


Q9: Does social media influence your choices in what to watch on OTT platforms or TV? Can you give an example of such an influence?


Q10: How have your viewing habits on OTT platforms and TV changed over the past few years? What do you think prompted these changes?


Q11: Where do you see the future of content consumption going, especially with the rise of OTT platforms? How do you think your own habits might evolve?


Q12: Is there anything else about your experience with OTT platforms and traditional TV that you think is important to share?


3.7.2 Collection of secondary data

The collection of secondary data through document analysis involved the examination of existing literature, research papers, and relevant documents related to sports broadcasting consumption. This encompassed a review of prior research studies, industry reports, and academic publications. Such an extensive examination was crucial for gaining a thorough understanding of the subject matter from various perspectives. The documents gathered were critically analyzed to extract valuable insights, theories, and findings related to the factors influencing sports consumption. This critical analysis was instrumental in contextualizing the current study within the existing body of knowledge. By dissecting and understanding previous studies and reports, the research was positioned within the broader academic and industry discourse on sports consumption.

Table 2: Data collection sheet for secondary data

 Source ID

 Source Type


Publication Date

Key Findings

Relevance to Study



3.8 Data Analysis 

In the present qualitative study, the data analysis was meticulously executed using a thematic analysis approach using  NVivo version 8.0. The data collected in Microsoft Excel, which primarily consisted of qualitative information gathered from in-depth interviews, was transferred into the software. Besides these interviews, the study also incorporated observational approaches and a review of secondary data like existing literature and research papers. The output format from NVivo included frequency reports showing the prevalence of certain codes, summary reports with key findings, thematic maps and diagrams, which illustrated the relationships between identified themes such as ratings of cricket sports and forecasts for the OTT devices and services market.

3.8.1 Data Transcription and Verification

The data analysis process began with the meticulous transcription of in-depth interviews. Every interview conducted was documented word to word, ensuring an accurate representation of participants’ insights. This step was critical for maintaining the integrity of the data. Each transcript underwent a thorough review and cross-verification with the original recordings to confirm accuracy, thus safeguarding the reliability of the information collected.


3.8.2 Data Cleaning and Organization

Following transcription, the data were methodically organized and cataloged. This step involved classifying  the data by source type, including interviews, observations, and document analysis, and by emergent themes. The themes encompassed a variety of topics such as consumption habits, factors influencing subscription  decisions, and the comparative value of OTT platforms and traditional television. Organizing data into these  categories was crucial for the subsequent detailed analysis, as it facilitated a structured and thematic approach  to the exploration of the collected information.

3.8.3 Coding and Theme Identification

The coding phase of our qualitative study began with initial coding to identify broad themes across all data types, including in-depth interviews, observational data, and secondary sources. This phase represents the first level of breaking down the data. Initial coding involved meticulously reading through the data and coding it line by line or paragraph by paragraph. Each code typically represented a specific thought, idea, concept, or piece of information, with the goal being to remain open to all possible interpretations and capture any potential themes.

Key codes identified during this phase, along with their descriptions, included:

  1. Immersive Experiences:
    • Code: “Immersive”
    • Description: This code captures references to immersive viewing experiences in sports broadcasting. For example, one participant’s account of using the Jio Cinema app for cricket watching highlighted the enjoyment derived from diverse camera angles, offering a more engaging and immersive experience.
  2. Cost as a Determinant:
    • Code: “Cost Influence”
    • Description: This code reflects participants’ considerations regarding the cost-effectiveness of their subscriptions, particularly about the extensive content libraries of platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime, and the value derived from these services.
  3. Social Influence and Trend Adoption:
    • Code: “Trendy Wave, Peer Pressure”
    • Description: This code illustrates the impact of social dynamics on subscription decisions, highlighting how peer pressure and social trends influence user choices in streaming services.
  4. Content Variety and Choice Overload:
    • Code: “Choice Paradox”
    • Description: This code addresses the paradox of choice in streaming platforms. Participants expressed feelings of both excitement and overwhelm due to the vast array of content available on platforms like Disney+ Hotstar or Hulu. This abundance of choice sometimes led to indecision or dissatisfaction, as users struggled to choose from an extensive range of options. This code highlights the psychological impact of having too many choices, a significant factor in consumer behaviour and satisfaction.
  5. Technological Ease and Accessibility:
    • Code: “Tech Ease”
    • Description: This code captures participants’ comments on the ease of use and accessibility of streaming technology. Participants frequently mentioned aspects like user-friendly interfaces, the convenience of mobile apps, or the efficiency of smart TV compatibility. For instance, the ease of accessing Netflix on different devices was often cited as a key factor in their continued subscription. This code reflects the importance of technological simplicity and convenience in retaining and satisfying viewers.

Following initial coding, the study moved to open coding, where data were broken down into more discrete elements for an in-depth examination. This analytical phase involved dissecting the data into distinct parts, enabling a thorough exploration of similarities and differences across responses and the identification of patterns.

Axial coding then followed, where the data were reassembled in a new way, making connections between the categories identified during open coding. This step was crucial for understanding the relationships between different codes and categories and their relation to broader themes.

The final stage, selective coding, refined these categories and integrated them around the core themes that emerged from the data. This stage involved identifying the central themes that held the data together, thus creating a coherent narrative from the study.

The results of this coding process were reported by outlining the final themes that emerged from the data, supported by relevant quotes and observations.

3.8.4 Thematic Analysis and Narrative Construction

A critical part of the data analysis was thematic analysis. This phase entailed identifying, analyzing, and reporting patterns within the data. Key themes such as “The Influence of Content Quality on Viewer Preference,” “The Role of Social Media in Shaping Viewing Habits,” “Comparative Value Perception between OTT Platforms and Traditional TV,” “Impact of Advertisements on Subscription Choices,” and “Changing Patterns in Shared Viewing Experiences” were identified, defined, and refined as the analysis progressed and patterns in the data became clearer. These themes played a pivotal role in understanding the nuances of consumer engagement with sports broadcasting. Through this analysis, a rich narrative emerged, intertwining participant quotes, observational data, and document analysis findings to highlight key points and support the conclusions drawn.

3.8.5 Triangulation and Member Checking

To ensure the reliability of the findings, the data from various sources were triangulated. This process involved comparing information from interviews, observations, and document analysis to corroborate the findings.  Concurrently, member checking was employed, allowing participants to review and confirm the accuracy of the findings related to their input. This step not only enhanced the credibility of the data but also ensured that the findings accurately reflected participants’ experiences.

3.8.6 Comparative and Contextual Analysis

The final stage involved a comparative analysis, contrasting the primary data with existing literature and research in the field. This comparison placed the findings within the broader context of sports broadcasting consumer engagement. By juxtaposing the research outcomes with theoretical frameworks and prior empirical studies, the study provided a nuanced understanding of sports consumption behaviours across television and  OTT platforms, enriching the overall comprehension of the topic.

The next chapter will delve into the factors  influencing sports broadcasting consumption based on the themes identified

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